SGOT and SGPT are related with the damaged condition of the liver. These are the enzymes which in the normal circumstances reside within the cells of the liver. But when there is some injury in the liver due to any reason then these enzymes are spilled into the blood stream. Usually the enzymes are the proteins which are present throughout the body, each of them are having its unique function. Generally the enzymes help to catalyze the routine and necessary chemical reactions in the body.
Aminotransferases are the most sensitive and widely used liver enzymes. They include aspartate aminotransferases (AST or SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT). These enzymes are usually concentrated within the liver cells. When due to some reason the liver is injured or damaged these enzymes are spilled into the blood by the liver and thus results into the increased levels of enzymes in the blood. The increased levels of enzymes in the blood indicate some disease in the liver.
The enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is also known by the name of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and it is normally found in the diversity of tissues that includes heart, liver, kidney, brain and muscle. When any of these tissues is damaged, it is released into serum. For example, due to heartattack or with muscle disorders the level in serum rises. So it is not a specific indicator of liver injury.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is also known by the name of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). It is normally concentrated in the liver. It doesn’t mean that it is exclusively concentrated in the liver but mostly it is concentrated in the liver. The moment there is some injury in the liver, it is released into the bloodstream. So we can say that SGPT specifically indicates the liver status.
The normal range for AST (SGOT) is from 5 to 40 units per liter of serum and the normal range for ALT (SGPT) is from 7 to 56 units per liter of serum. When there is some problem in the heart cells or liver then the levels of these enzymes moves in the upward direction. Sometimes use of certain medicines related to cholesterol, diabetes, surgery, certain pain killers etc also increase the levels of SGOT and SGPT. Use of alcohol is also responsible for the increase in the levels of these enzymes.
It is necessary to control the increased levels of these enzymes. Proper treatment and diet restrictions are necessary for reducing the levels of these enzymes.