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Ion Traps and Quantum Computers (qCRs)

Amit Srivastava

Physicists at the NIST have built and tested a device for trapping electrically charged atoms (ions) that could process dozens of atoms at once. This design is an attempt to increase the numbers of ions trapped from few ions in a particular area to large trap arrays that can process many ions simultaneously in desired location.

The ion traps are device to trap single species; neutral or charged with the help of electro-magnetic fields. There are three types of trap widely used- Paul trap, Penning trap and a third their combination; Combined trap. The configuration of the Paul trap and Penning trap are the same; they both consist of a cylindrical, three electrode, symmetrical structure: two end-cap electrodes and a ring electrode.

In the Paul trap a combination of dc and radiofrequency voltages is applied to the electrodes. The equations of motion of an ion inside the Paul trap are Mathieu differential equations, which lead to both stable and unstable solutions depending on the operating parameters. By controlling these parameters, ions of a desired m/e range can be confined; other ions which are either intrinsically unstable or have large amplitudes collide with the trap electrodes and are lost. The Penning trap uses, as well as an axial magnetic field, an electric field with both end-cap at positive potential with respect to ring electrode. The effect of the electric field is to push the positive ions to the center and cause harmonic oscillations in the axial direction. The associated radial electric field, however, is repulsive and tends to push ions of the trap. It is the axial magnetic field which forces the ions into epicyclic trajectories resulting in their confinement. The ion-traps can be used to determination of the g-value of an electron from electron spin resonance experiments on a single electron, called the geonium atom, observation of quantum jumps in a single trapped ion, test of quantum Zeno effect, a precision test of linearity of quantum mechanics, a range of studies on one-component microplasmas, optical spectroscopy of molecular ions, precision mass measurement of radioactive isotopes, trapping and precision mass measurement of antiproton, lifetime measurement of neutron undergoing beta decay, atomic physics of highly charged ions etc.     

Made of a quartz wafer coated with gold in an oval shape roughly 2 by 4 millimeter, NIST’s “racetrack” features 150 work zones where quantum bits (qubit) ions encoding is 1s and 0s in their spin or other observable quantum properties- could be stored and transported using electrical fields and manipulated with laser beams for information processing. The trap’s higher version could store more quantum bits and use different materials.

Geometry is a key factor of the new design. This is the first example of ion transport through a junction in a trap where all electrodes are located on a single flat surface. This is marked improvement over a multilayer ion transport originally developed. The minimum number of adjacent electrodes required to hold an ion in an energy well are three.  This energy well and ion can be moved spatially though out the device applying voltage to other electrodes. The modular design would allow the addition of extra rings, which could significantly increase capabilities.

If they can be built qCR would rely on the rules of quantum mechanics to solve certain intractable problems, such as breaking today’s most widely used encryption codes. They can also be used for optimizing complex system such as airline schedule, much faster database searching and solving complex mathematical problems and even the development of novel products such as fraud proof digital signature. One of the most important consideration in qCRs is the fact that they scale polynomially rather than exponentially, as classical computers do. The polynomial scaling is what makes qCRs so useful for breaking encryption codes.      

The way ion-trap computing works require that ions be shuttled back and forth around the trap structure. The term “teleportation” is the word used to describe a transfer of “quantum states” between separate atoms. The technique may prove useful for transporting information in qCRs of the future, which could use the central processing elements smaller than an area of a sugar cube to carry out massively complex computations.

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Humanness and History

Amit Srivastava

Most of the people think that they are better human than average. In a study done on residents of six nations; Australia, Germany, Israel, Japan, Singapore and the United States, led by the Steve Loughnan of University of Melbourne, the researchers found out that most people also think that they are more human than average. They feel of greater emotional depth and general humanness. People see themselves as embodying human nature more than others. The researchers also found out that people are less apt to rate themselves as exceptional on the specific aspects of human nature they believe make humans unique.

First of all, the six countries belong to the West or the greater West. West is the dominant civilization and its dominance is going to be more asymmetric and permanently irreversible. As such middle class of the rich countries can always donate more and being dominantly Caucasoid they are better mannered. Therefore, they are more apt to reply positively on humanness and rate themselves higher. The world is on the path of greater and greater growth and if alternate to hydrocarbon based fuel is invented then other than geophysical reasons that path may be irreversible. In this era of GATT driven sentiments and emotions, the talk about equality and justice appear natural. The West’s requirement to keep the whole flock together while expanding, makes the Westerner appear politer than what they are. In other words, the responses are more political in nature rather than they being an intrinsic part of human nature.

Before we analyze further let us look at the past and future of the six countries. Australia was once the colony of British and is yet not republic. Even though the race relationships are best in Australia there has been continuous attacks on Indians living in Australia. While Australians might have grievances against Indians living in Australia, it is better for them to close doors for Indian immigrants and other immigrants instead of attacking them. Just sixty five years back whole Europe was reeling under the depression of two world wars and Germany was most responsible for it. The Aryan myth led to Nazi attack towards Jews and the related holocaust. Even the racially homogeneous Europe had to fight two bitter world wars and overstretched cold war to unite regionally under European Union. Today Germany is the biggest economy in Europe. No matter how big beauty is the formation of Israel, the fact is that it is grossest kind of violation of Palestine Arabs rights. While a derived Western country should be welcome in Middle East, it should not be at the cost of high regional tension. Japan was once an imperial power. It learnt pacifism by two of its cities being nuclear attacked by the winning Americans. Singapore is a city-nation state and is direct result of Western expansionism.

It is the last country, the United States which has most impeccable records when judged at the relative power level among the six. It never colonized except for brief rule in Philippines. But it was the shrewdest power in the sense that it never contested European Colonialism and it let it die its natural death. The United States power is largely on its ability to innovate, military strength and Federal constitution. Today it is considered an arrogant power by almost every one including by its allies.

Whatever be the case, the fact is that the group is selective and almost all of six countries have not been always decent since their inception when judged from neutrality. It is true for the US too because it did not have universal suffrage before 1967. If six to seven decades before people were completely different than what they are now, can’t they be different five to six decades later? Isn’t the idea of humanness depends on the poorness of Africa and some regions in Asia? Isn’t it equally true that humanness is the result of shared wealth induced by GATT? What if there is no requirement of aid? Won’t the ‘average’ increase to the level that it becomes difficult to judge oneself above the average?

What is the best for earth- a relatively thinner planet with greater equity and greater accumulated vertical wealth per capita or a current planet with so much disparities and erratic distribution? But in that case the humanness may not find that high value which it finds today. Isn’t easier to move towards lesser populated planet for a sustainable life with all except Whites decreasing their population proportionately?   


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Antimatter and symmetries

Amit Srivastava

Experimentalists in the US have found the heaviest anti nucleus so far. This may shed light on where most of the antimatter originally produced at the birth of the Universe has gone. The heaviest anti nucleus also contain the example of newer building blocks, anti strange quark. Nuclei containing one or more strange quarks are known as hyper nuclei, which can be represented as the third dimension in a conventional periodic table. The discovery may shed light on the working of compact celestial objects known as neutron stars.

The finding can also explore the possible violations of fundamental symmetries between matter and antimatter that occurred in the early Universe. It is believed that quark and anti quark were present in equal proportion in early Universe but antimatter appears to be largely absent from the present day Universe.

First of all the conservation laws, symmetries and invariance laws should be considered only as approximation at least in the beginning of the Universe. The laws of conservation and symmetries have evolved over the period of time and they might not be exact even today. As such perfection and utmost precision are impossibility. The Universe was very fat and it becomes slimmer by slowly absorbing conservation laws. In other words, laws of Physics can not be eternal and they are scale dependent too.

As such the Universe knows only one law – to evolve; to evolve in a manner to create intelligence, but in many places. If it requires the abandonment or emergence of any law be it conservation or symmetry, those laws will take shape. The paradox of there being equal amount of quark and anti quark initially and there being almost no significant fraction of antimatter present in today’s Universe can be resolved. First of all this assumption that ultimate building blocks were quarks may be incorrect as Dehmelt has talked about cosmons- the ultimate building blocks of the Universe. Secondly, the process of anti quarks getting converted to anti nuclei and with positron forming the antimatter might be energetically and entropically less favored. Even the slight asymmetry in the fractional proportion can change the whole thing and could have cascading effect on the building of matter over antimatter. And the last that the antimatter is only present in trace may be incorrect.

The most important observation is super symmetric renormalized theories of gravity, the Scalar-Vector-Tensor (SVT) theories, which predict scalar and vector partners of graviton and therefore the gravitational pull between matter-antimatter is higher that that between matter-matter and antimatter-antimatter. May be similar to graviton there are partners of nuclear and sub-nuclear mediating particles which make the anti quark-anti quark or anti-nuclei-anti-nuclei repulsion far higher. The binding energy for the anti-nuclei could be so small that the formation of anti-nuclei was very much disfavored. Or there be charge super symmetry (CSS) in the sense that like fermion can be converted into boson and vice versa, similarly anti-quarks can be converted in to quark and vice versa. But still the conversion of anti-quark to quarks could be favored over the reverse. In the end there may be process of anti quarks and anti nuclei getting converted into known matter particles.

The most important thing is the limit of observation. The earth does not have the capability to take humans beyond moon. In an era where drinking water’s access is becoming difficult in many parts of the world and many on earth think that it is very difficult to invent an alternate to hydrocarbon based fuel, can the completeness of Physics be considered as correct?

The best thing would be to consider all laws as approximations including the Einstein General theory of relativity till earth discover longevity of life to the point of permissible geophysical limits of the planet. The earth should know only one law- to evolve anyhow, may be that is the law of the Universe.   


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Can promiscuity save humans?

Amit Srivastava

In a research led by Nina Wedell of the University of Exeter, UK, it has been found that promiscuous females in fruit flies may be key to the species survival. They found out that due to a chromosomes, called, “sex ratio distortion chromosomes”, when carried by a male, causes all of its sperm with male genes to die before they can fertilize an egg. The all female offspring will carry the chromosomes and pass them to their sons who will produce more female offspring. Monogamous becomes extinct after males die out. Female promiscuity saves the day because male carrying the sex ratio distortion chromosomes produce half as many sperm as normal males. When a female mates with multiple males their sperm will compete. The males carrying the dangerous sex ratio chromosomes will be out-competed by the normal males and in this way the spread can be stopped.

This finding should be compared with another recent finding which predicts the end of human civilization on earth due to widening of genetic pools and the earth humans need to mate with humans of another extraterrestrial civilization in order to produce offspring. Could female promiscuity save the human civilization? While among the females of animal kingdom, polyandry may be common, the same can not be generalized when it comes to humans. In fact it is other way round- the promiscuity among humans may destroy the race.

It requires utmost morality to continue with human civilization as a whole as the longevity and morality may have the direct proportionate relationship. It does not mean that most sexually pervert or immoral people would die first as it is the Americans who would last the longest on earth. The race can not die because of a universal reason- the others may die because of argument of inefficiency, the Americans may die because of promiscuity. Again it does not mean that all efficient would survive the longest as mutual coupling would save many among inefficient. As such American White and Africans are most likely to survive the longest.

There is no biological law which on its own can govern the duration which a human race would survive. As such a race should continue as long as the geo-physical reasons permit it and if morality (but not religious) of universe is considered, part of it should survive by escaping earth should the speed of light is not the maximum speed of propagation. It depends on the human acts to live up to the maximum permissible time limit.

One of the reasons for widening of genetic pool is hybridization and the prime reason for hybridization is non-economic inflation (NEI). Therefore for the longevity, for correcting the distortion, for adjusting the complexity to a proper level and to let mental inertia not get lost, the trend of hybridization should be reversed. The purity and conservatism should be the theme and the talk about race, class and caste should be considered as perfectly normal. But the hybridization can not be reversed unless correct politics evolves. For this the talk about equality and change in global order need to be addressed at correct level. Imports and piggy-riding can not change the global order nor can becoming the production base of the Western companies. In fact such moves strengthen the existing world order. The correct world order can be brought about by instruments called Political derivatives. Such would create stakes for importing countries for importing the stuff. The idea of demographic dividends should be replaced by sustainable population for a decent life.

It so happen that population of males and females is almost equal on earth and humans till now have not developed sex ratio distortion chromosomes. But the continued promiscuity, homosexuality and overt sexual behavior and the continuing male and female chauvinism can really distort the sex ratio. It won’t be uniform all across the cultures. It would show cultural disparity where by some societies would grow higher number of males and some would grow higher number of females. The subconscious and conscious level of hatred among humans would not allow to balance the ratio. Even if it is tried artificially, it won’t be successful.           

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Amit Srivastava

David Levy in his famous book, “Sex with Robot: The Evolution of Human-Robot Relationship” argues that by mid-century getting sex with an electronic femme-fatale or a superstud sexbot will become popular. Doing sex with robot should be considered as ideal sex if it controls the distortions in sexual life, like perverted attitudes,  homosexuality in Western society and pre-marital and extra-marital sex in traditional societies.

The ability to do sex without always a partner can help make family and society stable. Imagine a person doing simulated sex with robots with the help of a computer screen. One can get as beautiful and as handsome partner as one wants, simulate it with the help of screen and enjoy with the help of robot. One can imagine anybody and can do simulated sex. One can have all kind of sex like group sex etc with only single or two partners (one male and one female) doing the real sex. All taboos can be broken without affecting the psyche of the people.  

But doing simulated sex with or without the help of robot is going to further the distortions of a sexually engaging society. The libido is going to get increased and contrary to common perception the demand for opposite sex is going to get increased. Many people believe that by removing the actual female from the sex, these robots would ignore the person part of a woman and would focus on only sexual parts. But this is not going to be the case as sex would be more popular and the happening thing all around the globe. 

The ability of doing sex with robot is going to increase the demand for equality and therefore distort the politics of the globe. This is going to sharpen the bipolarity of the America whereby the internal politics of the US would divide the globe around two poles- one Democrat and one Republican. Majority of non-White immigrants would support the Democrats and there would be inherent wish among the immigrants to destroy the Republicans.

The more and more people would be bisexual with insertion or penetration being the theme. With this sexual habit dominating the life, there would be more gays and lesser lesbians. The sex would be dominated by insertion and it would be dominated by Penis like object. It would be return of male chauvinism with more and more people seeking sex with prostitutes. Of course, with the passage of time the females are going to be more prosperous and this can help offset some of the male-dominance. The class, color, race and caste arguments are going to be increased. The world would be a divided family with rich becoming richer and middle-class competing for that life.

When the world’s population has already crossed the level of a decent sustainable life and it is non-stop increasing, the popular usage of robots in personal lives is going to create tensions and induce conflicts. With increase in population there would be increased demand for ‘visa versus trade’ policy, but there may be lesser jobs at lower level in the West due to automation. Moreover, by the mid-century, the natural fuel would be almost exhausted and it requires the invention of alternate fuel to sustain a decent sex life. With the end of oil, the prices of natural resources may crash making deflation the dominant theme.

There was a time when psychological evolution was controlled by biological evolution of the past and that time-limit was invention of the internet. Now the evolution steps might not be dictated by the biological evolution. While there is some point in not checking the uncontrolled population growth, in long term it may be harmful to the whole society. There is some point as well in checking the spread of democracy. If all get votes then it will be end of democracy as it would be a heavily populated America with non-Whites and Whites equal in proportion. The US would definitely outsource diffusiveness from all over the globe and it may hint at the end of bipartisanism or end of parity in bipartisanism. The loss of bipartisanism means the end of democracy in the world. Doing sex with robots is a good thing if it checks the social expressions of libido. It is just another method which would distort more that it corrects, if it does not fulfill its proper function.   

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Genetic tests and population control

Amit Srivastava

There is a competition among many dating sites to include genetic tests in finding true love. The extrapolation of this expertise may be to control the sex of the child through medication and through the same have both the sexes. These genetic tests could be used to predict the profession of the offspring too.

The idea of a couple having a son and a daughter and this technology be extended to all the couples is very exciting one as this puts the net growth rate both locally and globally at zero provided the distribution of age is equitable. The idea of population being stable at both micro level and macro level makes the world more stable. But the population of earth is itself very high and far above the level of sustainable decent life. The same very high level of population puts the equity in human development indices only a far fetched imagination. Though it is hypothetical one but it is good to consider the consequence of an equal distribution of X chromosomes and Y chromosomes among males at an affordable price.

The macro level stability checks the inflation as all additions to populations are inflationary. The micro level checks the related rise of unnecessary expectations. Together both checks the distortions in social and public life and put an end to conflicts both internally and externally.  Even if technological ability is there, it requires more than that. It requires political commitments to popularize such technology. The competitions among the regions, nations need to be contained and the idea of demographic dividends needs to be put aside. The immigration and exit policy need to be revisited and it may put an end to uncontrolled, unchecked expansion of dominant nationals. Since it requires the containment of expansionism of the dominant nationals therefore it is contradictory in evolutionary sense and may come at a time when population has become stabilized and politics of the time does not permit any reduction through legislations or political efforts.

But should it come it would lead to wide improvement in the genetic functionalities of humans of the time and improve upon the work structure of human civilization. Automation can be used to improve the functionalities but this method is good for a low populated society. It can come in isolation in the parts of the West and if automation is proper then would lead to new conflicts. The stable population can improve the chances of conflict resolution and literally takes away the first strike options from nuclear capable countries.

The conflict in most of the cases is among demography- when one kind of people reject the control of other kind of people in their life. Whether it is the Kashmir or the Middle East the stable relative population or non-competition in population growth keeps the sentiments somewhat calm and does not escalate the tension. Any relative population increase among the Arab in the Palestine is going to raise the Israeli eyebrows. Similarly any significant relative population increase among either Hindus or Moslems can lead to the cycles of violence and counter-violence in Kashmir.

The stable populated world both at micro and macro level would stabilize the nuclear deterrence among the nuclear haves and takes away the first strike option. The US and Russia can segment militarily then as the inflation approaches an appropriate value. They can take pledge not to kill any region, ethnicity, nation or religion and also not to allow any one to do so. It effectively takes away the first strike option of the UK, France and China along with those of the unrecognized nuclear weapon states and by the laws of politics Russian options become static zero and the American becomes diluted.

The idea of micro and macro stability is the urgently required but only rich among the people and Westerners could have access to this. Such technology would be beginning of new conflicts and chaos all around the globe.     

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How did religion evolved?

Amit Srivastava

Professors Ilkka Pyysiainen and Marc Hauser in their recent articles in “Trends in Cognitive Sciences” while discussing the origin of religion have concluded that religion evolved as a byproduct of pre-existing mental capacities and not because it fulfilled a specific function of its own. Religion is linked to morality in different ways. They based their conclusion on finding that people of different religion or no religion show similar moral judgment when asked to comment on unfamiliar moral dilemmas.

The most important thing to understand is why humans were born at all. Apes should have used to think sex with their Gods and that’s why their Gods, humans, were born. Therein lies the notion of God- an extraneous super-intelligent species. The humans for most of their history were unconscious. The conscious is considered to be around 3000 years old though it can vary among human civilizations, like, for a section of Hindus it could have come earlier than others. This long unconscious state should have inbuilt the idea of God. The transformation from unconscious to conscious state is defense mechanism against the collapse of humanity. The God is the intermediary between the unconscious and conscious and religion its manifestation.

Apes with higher sexual instincts could have become humans. It is because of primary drive of doing sex better that made them bipod. Not all apes were of the same primitive nascent intelligence and therein lies the distributive aspect of civilization. The evolution always follows the law of distributions; as all apes could not become humans, all humans can not become Americans nor can all survive should the potential of earth to sustain a decent human life contracts. The inefficient, weak and dark all would survive along with efficient, strong and fair. Religion would again be great savior and God would revive back.

Religion evolve because of narrow distributions and because there was not much wealth. It is very difficult to preach a new religion in the internet dominated age. Religion was preached to create better distributions and better distribution requires huge populations up to a point and stable entities called states. The population could not have come to that high level without catastrophe both man made and natural. Therefore, wars were mandatory. It should be noted that in extreme situations where continuity of life becomes a serious question, the significant population that survives should have lowest and highest birth rate. That means the fairest and the darkest would survive.

The most important function of religion at the highest statistics could have been primarily to create institutions and systems and derivatively to create nation states and larger groupings. Religion added glues, correlated people, make them co-evolve and make the growth in-phase. All these properties are mandatory for the continuity of human life on earth. All the preachers, if hypothetically considered in the modern context, would appreciate creation of wealth, nation-states, international treaties, beauty and progress. None of them would withdraw any of his words.

Religion is the biggest contributor to inertia and consciousness and it requires effort, both economic and non-economic, to maintain them. All religions are expansive in nature but not their followers. The difference in religion is not as much among the preachers as among the followers. Religion is reflection of what is subconscious in consciousness term. Therefore, preachers should be considered as the product of consciousness dominated psychological evolution.

The religion is reflection of beliefs of the core believers. Christianity is for expansive mind in most of the cases. Hinduism is for cast conscious people. Islam is expansive but in completely different sense. In the end the theory that the religion evolved as a byproduct of pre-existing mental capacities may be the correct theory and it gets verified by the fact that even non-caste among Hindus believe in caste-system, all Whites are either Christian or atheist and all Arabs are Moslems.          


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Universalism means dead end!

Amit Srivastava

According to media reports, Google Company is developing software which can instantly translate the dialogue between two people on cell phone. The company has already created an automatic system for translating text on computers. It covers 52 languages out of 6000 plus languages spoken in the world. This will be the first automatic speech translation service for cell phones. One needs to have a combination of high accuracy machine translation and high accuracy voice recognition to let it work properly. It may take a couple of years to bring the product in the market.

While this is a welcome step and a requirement of time, the Western companies need to invest in other projects too. On surface the software appears to increase the functionalities of non-English speaking people and linguistic minorities and making communication work the best possible way, the fact is that it would make increase the dependencies on the Western world more by increasing the gap between the West and the rest.

The Western, particularly, the American companies should also invest in humans and their wealth. The importance of culture and identity should be the most important thing for all of the people including European countries. In the name of integration the identity of nation-states and culture should not be blurred. The only entity above nation-state which can survive the test of time is the West. This era of barrier-less world may even bring barriers above the pre-GATT world, should the busts outnumber booms and the inflation crosses a mark.

The idea of investing in equality may be the most desirable thing for investors. Instead of making dependent consumers, the investors and the corporations should make wealthier consumers. There should be a limit about the wealth that can be generated on earth. Therefore, the numbers of wealthier consumers would be significantly lower than the numbers of dependent consumers. If the investors invest in equality creating products than not only inflation would be lower, but the population and therefore stress on natural resources would be lesser as well. There needs to be proper equilibrium between horizontal and vertical wealth. For a stable society, not only vertical accumulation is required but fairly distributed horizontal spread is also required. To keep the inflation low, the cost of producing capital should be low and therefore population additions should be very low or zero or even negative. While accumulation should be the desired thing, horizontal distributions should be more important. It should be noted that there are very limited means to produce capital and distribute it properly other than capitalism and all such versions would be derivatives of capitalism.

In order to make a more stable world, both the governments and private businesses should invest in local institutions. They should invest in local food, language, culture and lifestyle with the help of locals and should not make locals believe on universalized versions. The governments and the private institutions should not make local culture survive on non-economic inflation (NEI). They should not let people believe in psychological convergence. As all apes could not become humans, all humans can not become Americans. Instead of substantiating local beliefs many of which may be incorrect, the institutions should invest in correcting the gaps in the evolutions and not deforming or distorting them.

If a country can not produce a consumer product with the help of original producers or show no sign of understanding it, then the country should rethink its consent for a barrier-less world. The relative psychological level of all countries should be almost the same and the gaps should not be inflationary. In this way all nations can co-evolve in an asymmetric and irreversible world. There should be attempts to produce those products which increase the values of a human of all cultures and nations, like; food, farming products, bio-engineering products, cosmetics, clothing and medicines etc. Such products should be localized and not universalized. The world would be happier and safer if bio-wealth is generated for all. Very sophisticated high-technology products should be limited one, at least initially. Without generating bio-wealth for all, all talks about equality should be considered as racial homosexuality.

(It will be naïve for the readers to consider it as campaign against or for any products.)


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…Before Cosmological singularity

Amit Srivastava

There are various theories to explain the origin of the Universe. Notably among them are the standard Big Bang model, the Steady State theory, Oscillating models, Vacuum Fluctuations, Chaotic Inflationary model and Quantum Gravity model.

According to the modern observations, the Universe is expanding. As one reserves the expansion and extrapolates back in time, space-time curvature increases, ultimately becoming a singularity. This singularity implies an infinite curvature constituting an edge. According to Big Bang theory, the Universe came out of nothing, an ex nihilo creation.

The steady state theory tries to avoid singularity by proposing that Universe is in an isotropic cosmic expansion state and as the galaxies recede new matter forms in the interstices of space created by the galactic recession. Extrapolations do not give infinite density instead it remains constant. No observations support this theory.

The oscillating theory does not presume an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. According to this theory, gravitational pull may overcome the force of expansion of the Universe and the Universe may start contracting, a Big Crunch. The collapsing Universe might not coalesce at a point and the material contents of the Universe might pass each other by owing to non-isotropic and non-homogeneous property.

According to Vacuum Fluctuation model, the Universe is a primordial vacuum existing in a steady state. Throughout this vacuum subatomic fluctuations constantly occur and mini-Universes are born. It presumes an indefinite number of the Universes.

According to Chaotic Inflationary model, inflation never ends. Each inflating domain of the Universe after reaching a certain value gives rise to another domain, and so on.

According to Quantum Gravity model the Universe needs to be defined by a wave function. This model eliminates the singularity by transforming the conical hyper-surface of a classical space-time into a smooth curved surface of quantum-relativistic space-time.

The most of the Physics community believe in Big Bang theory or Quantum Gravity model whereby the need for a creator is eliminated. The important point is out of nothing. The law of the Universe should be to evolve; to evolve even before Big Bang. Why can’t the law of Universes be scale dependent and space-time dependent? Why should the laws of nature be universal? Why can’t they be co-ordinate dependent? Why should conservation of mass-energy be always followed?

It is possible that before the arrival of time, there was space. The mixing of space-time may be an approximation, a recent phenomenon in our galaxy or ultimately incorrect theory. The space just by its existence (since the Universe had to evolve) deformed. After a certain degree of distortions and deformations the mass start producing and this process was highly non-linear and cascading. The mass produced may be ‘cosmon’ or combinations of gluons and leptons or their constituents. These masses coalesce to form Big Bang or combinations of Big Bang initial masses. There should be only one Universe. The initial Big Bang was too big for its constituents and too complex. The time taken for initial inflation, from the size of atom to the size of the grapefruit was also significant. One can not measure the time of the initial Universe from present clocks.

Infinity should be considered as absurd and range of any interaction should not be considered infinite. The force of gravity may scale down to exact zero well before infinity and for this to happen, the partners of graviton; scalars, vectors need to be incorporated into.   

The bottom line is that there can not be any entity called God. Hypothetically, if it is believed that there was one, the God should also follow laws; laws of Physics. There is only one law that is, the Universe evolves and it is finite. The only thing that might not have an end is the age of the Universe.



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No Trace Theorem

Amit Srivastava

In all likelihood capitalism saves many more from catastrophes than what socialist or communist measures can. Growth and inflation is required for the continuity and the stability of various topologies. Bible is interpreted by many as a socialist preaching but considering that all Whites are either Christian or atheist (a weak form of Christianity) and except Russians they follow in some sense capitalism, they can not be said to be non-believer. The point gets highlighted by the fact that Jesus after resurrection asked his disciples to evangelize Jews. Jesus should have been talking about a race; Caucasian and not about human race. The equality, peace, democracy and justice are more the norms of the societies that follow capitalism than those which do not. Moreover, if the theory of birth of all humans from four African cousins is correct and this when combined with the fact that Africans are forgotten race hints at a capitalist kind of world.

There comes a question whether the universe would preserve all its history in the form of radiation and make it available to humans on earth after 13.7 billion years or has the some information lost. This is not question of ever increasing entropy and constantly decreasing information (infons) in logarithmic sense. It’s a fundamental question whether the probing of the universe requires a capitalist tool like spaceship or is it feasible with the limited mean available to humans on earth with speed of light as the highest speed of propagation for massless particles?

Lets now talk about a theorem called ‘No Trace Theorem’. It starts with an assumption that the universe is necessarily cruel and capitalist. It does not mean that the all of the societies which could develop spaceship, should it be believed that extraterrestrial life exists, necessarily follow free market economy ideology. If population is controlled and low then there might be little difference between socialism espousing equality and brute capitalism. Whatever be the case spaceship is a capitalist tool even in the hand of communist society.

The universe knows only one law to constantly evolve, evolve even before Big Bang. It is not bound by any ideological beliefs (of humans of any place) except its own ability to evolve. It need not be preserving in physical sense in that it leaves traces of all phenomenon; that traces can be recovered only by paying cost and some can never be recovered. These costs have deep physical meaning and may follow laws of their own. The law is simple- radiation which is universal and does not change with time and propagates with an invariant speed can not be ultimate probe to this universe because humans have not put much effort. In other word humans, who are not responsible for creating these radiations, no say in propagating these radiations but have put only a small effort to receive them, can not put together the facts to make a foolproof theory of origin of the universe.

Humans on earth have not invested much to extract information about the origin of the universe. The humans will have to cross various technology barriers like alternate fuel, artificial intelligence, capacity to probe at least small part of the galaxy horizontally and possibly crossing the light-speed barrier. The taxation should be the law of the universe. The more one civilization wants to probe, the more it needs to invest. Even the alternate fuel may require more than hundred billion dollars worth investment. Moreover, more the past one wants to probe, more should be the cost and there may come saturation point for direct observation. By the same law future is costlier to probe since by knowing future a society can improve its lot.



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