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Antimatter and symmetries

Amit Srivastava


Experimentalists in the US have found the heaviest anti nucleus so far. This may shed light on where most of the antimatter originally produced at the birth of the Universe has gone. The heaviest anti nucleus also contain the example of newer building blocks, anti strange quark. Nuclei containing one or more strange quarks are known as hyper nuclei, which can be represented as the third dimension in a conventional periodic table. The discovery may shed light on the working of compact celestial objects known as neutron stars.


The finding can also explore the possible violations of fundamental symmetries between matter and antimatter that occurred in the early Universe. It is believed that quark and anti quark were present in equal proportion in early Universe but antimatter appears to be largely absent from the present day Universe.


First of all the conservation laws, symmetries and invariance laws should be considered only as approximation at least in the beginning of the Universe. The laws of conservation and symmetries have evolved over the period of time and they might not be exact even today. As such perfection and utmost precision are impossibility. The Universe was very fat and it becomes slimmer by slowly absorbing conservation laws. In other words, laws of Physics can not be eternal and they are scale dependent too.


As such the Universe knows only one law – to evolve; to evolve in a manner to create intelligence, but in many places. If it requires the abandonment or emergence of any law be it conservation or symmetry, those laws will take shape. The paradox of there being equal amount of quark and anti quark initially and there being almost no significant fraction of antimatter present in today’s Universe can be resolved. First of all this assumption that ultimate building blocks were quarks may be incorrect as Dehmelt has talked about cosmons- the ultimate building blocks of the Universe. Secondly, the process of anti quarks getting converted to anti nuclei and with positron forming the antimatter might be energetically and entropically less favored. Even the slight asymmetry in the fractional proportion can change the whole thing and could have cascading effect on the building of matter over antimatter. And the last that the antimatter is only present in trace may be incorrect.


The most important observation is super symmetric renormalized theories of gravity, the Scalar-Vector-Tensor (SVT) theories, which predict scalar and vector partners of graviton and therefore the gravitational pull between matter-antimatter is higher that that between matter-matter and antimatter-antimatter. May be similar to graviton there are partners of nuclear and sub-nuclear mediating particles which make the anti quark-anti quark or anti-nuclei-anti-nuclei repulsion far higher. The binding energy for the anti-nuclei could be so small that the formation of anti-nuclei was very much disfavored. Or there be charge super symmetry (CSS) in the sense that like fermion can be converted into boson and vice versa, similarly anti-quarks can be converted in to quark and vice versa. But still the conversion of anti-quark to quarks could be favored over the reverse. In the end there may be process of anti quarks and anti nuclei getting converted into known matter particles.


The most important thing is the limit of observation. The earth does not have the capability to take humans beyond moon. In an era where drinking water’s access is becoming difficult in many parts of the world and many on earth think that it is very difficult to invent an alternate to hydrocarbon based fuel, can the completeness of Physics be considered as correct?


The best thing would be to consider all laws as approximations including the Einstein General theory of relativity till earth discover longevity of life to the point of permissible geophysical limits of the planet. The earth should know only one law- to evolve anyhow, may be that is the law of the Universe.   


 

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